In Visible Movement: Nuyorican Poetry From The Sixties To Slam

I confess that despite moving to NYC in 1996 and spending my entire adult life here (including four years at NYU) I knew nothing of the Nuyorican poetry movement. It wasn’t until I saw the biopic Pinero that I heard about it. Then again, few of my Puerto Rican friends and none of my Puerto Rican students had heard of it either, so I wonder.
invisiblemovementUrayoan Noel says in the introduction that the Nuyorican phenomena is the result of the Puerto Rican diaspora, being stuck in a strange place. The East Village barrio was close to Greenwich Village and NYU, where you had all the artsy types, more so than Harlem or the Bronx. He cites Piri Thomas’ Down These Mean Streets as a start; Thomas goes from trying to escape his community to realizing that it has its merits. On a funny note, Down These Mean Streets was banned in every community where the teenage Piri Thomas had gone to escape racism.

The first chapter made me realize that the Nuyorican movement had none of the sponsorship that the Harlem Renaissance had. There was no Puerto Rican counterpart to the C.J. Walker company bankrolling Puerto Rican intellectuals, as Madam Walker did in the 1900’s. The Fords, Guggenheims, Astors, and Rockefellers weren’t sponsoring Puerto Rican artists or writers the way America’s millionaires had done with others. In the book Love Goes To Buildings On Fire, the author describes how Bruce Springsteen, a New Jersey native, had a big following among Andy Warhol’s transvestite crowd. His stubbly face, torn jeans, and rough guitar playing was surprisingly appealing to drag queens. But Miguel Pinero and other Puerto Rican poets and musicians; they were ignored by the established crowd. Perhaps the “arts” scene was little more than a clique, just with grown-ups rather than high school alpha-queens?

Miguel Algarin, founder of the Nuyorican Poets Café, first heard the term on a trip to the island. It was used to describe the New York bred Puerto Ricans, who the natives looked down on for speaking English. He and Pinero were seen as unwanted and undesirable by Puerto Rico’s academics; Pinero’s criminal record and drug use was hardly an impression. But the fact that Algarin was a professor at Rutgers meant nothing to them either.


Supreme City: How Jazz Age Manhattan Gave Birth to Modern America

Image result for supreme cityIn the wonderful book Over P.J. Clarke’s, the author describes the Prohibition as a law that the city’s liquor-loving mayor had no desire to enforce. His name was Jimmy Walker, and he saw through the temperance movement as being anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant. As a Catholic he had no problem with drinking, and as the mayor of New York City he knew not to anger the ethnic groups whose votes he needed. The people in New York had no desire to obey the Prohibition, any more than a 13 year old obeys an order never to look at internet porn. New York City in the 1920’s was a world class party town. But what gave it an edge over Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston, Miami, or LA?
Supreme City will surprise you in how it pieces together all the aspects of New York City that gave it the famous Jazz Age character. NYC always tolerated silly behavior, hence the nickname “Gotham,” after an English town whose resident avoided taxes by feigning imbecility. Yet according to this book, the 20’s were a time when even the upper classes were enjoying silly things once stereotyped as low-class, like short skirts and drinking.

The Holland Tunnel gets a chapter in this book, because at the time it was built it was a major tourist attraction. The ventilated air was cleaner than that on the street, and it ended the crowded boat traffic on the Hudson River. Before the tunnel, there were thousands of ferries crossing the river, crashing into each other, sabotaging each other, and god help the ferry pilots who had to cross at night or in fog. The waterways were now a place for pleasure boating. As for trains, the law forced them to convert from coal to electricity, so the smoke was soon gone. Even better, the tracks were forced under park Avenue, leaving Park Avenue literally what it was called; an avenue with a park in the middle (it was later removed to widen the lanes.) Property values soon rose.

The roles of women changed too, with so many of the male sex dead from the Great War. Women were now free to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, wear short dresses, and socialize with men in way previously seen as low class. The US was the biggest exporter of grain, lumber, alcohol, beef, and fertilizer, and US corporations owned plantations in Latin America. Europe was a wreck from the war, the US dollar value was high, and there were so many opportunities for wealth, not to mention the business of illegal alcohol. Radio programs increased, as did Hollywood and the movies, creating a greater influence than religious preaching. No temperance-minded moralist could stem the barrage of the media.
New York City, like others, was going up. Skyscrapers were built in record time, thanks to Mohawk ironworkers, and there were no lawsuits for wrongful death, leaving the contractors with zero liability. They came from Canada and Upstate New York, lived in the Gowanus area of Brooklyn, and had the Wigwam bar on Nevins Street. They left Brooklyn in the 1960’s when the highways decreased travel time and the area started getting bad.

Supreme City isn’t full of surprises, but it does have a logical argument. If the Holland Tunnel weren’t built, and the trains hadn’t been forced under the streets, then perhaps New York City wouldn’t have been as attractive as it became. Cities on the coast have always been attractive as a tourist spot, more so than the ones within the continent, so I imagine NYC would be a bit more fun than Denver or Salt Lake City. As for Miami, it wasn’t built up yet, and there wouldn’t have been much to do, same with Los Angeles. But Chicago, now that was a city with character, also a destination in the 1920’s.

However, NYC has always been popular with single adults, so it’s no surprise that the residents want to party. Once they needed more space (like Jay Gatsby) they moved out to Long Island or Westchester. The ones that stayed were the artists, writers, actors, and others who didn’t mind a cramped city.